Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Prestnation and presentation write up Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Prestnation and presentation write up - Essay Example (Crooks 2010). â€Å"The oil leak started when there was a loss of control over the pressure in the well followed by the failure of the well’s blowout preventer, a specialized valve designed to maintain consistent conditions. After the initial explosions the blowout preventer’s emergency functions failed to seal the well, allowing the leak to occur†. (BP oil, 2011) The language of this statement stresses that the occurrence was an â€Å"accident† which implies that it is out of the control of the company, and something that happened by chance. The expression of regret is a recognition of the pain and suffering that has been suffered by those who died and others who know them. The words do not imply that BP caused these deaths, or that they accept responsibility for them. The words just regret that something has happened. Because of the location of the incident near the American coastline there was immediate press interest and a flood of images and commentaries on the incident itself and the on-going and severe pollution of the area around the rig. BP was forced to treat this as a major public relations disaster as well as an environmental one and health and safety one. It was the attention of the press over a long period of time that turned this from one incident into a long series of further damaging developments. Not only the leak was highlighted, but also the inability of the company to stop it, and the inadequate clean up and recovery attempts. â€Å"We have acted to take responsibility for the clean-up, to respond swiftly to compensate people affected by the impact of the accident, and to look after the health, safety and welfare of the large number of residents and people who helped respond to the spill. As of 31 December 2010, we had spent $17.7 billion for our response activities. Throughout, we have sought to work closely with government, local residents, our shareholders, employees, the wider industry and the media. â€Å" (BP oil 2011) The

Monday, October 28, 2019

Whole Foods Market 2007 Essay Example for Free

Whole Foods Market 2007 Essay Introduction John Mackey, current president and cofounder of founder of Whole Foods, opened â€Å"Safer Way† natural grocery store in 1978. The store had limited success as it was a small location allowing only for a limited selection, focusing entirely on vegetarian foods. John joined forces with Craig Weller and Mark Skiles, founders â€Å"Clarksville Natural Grocery† (founded in 1979), to create Whole Foods Market. This joint venture took place in Austin, Texas in 1980 resulting in a new company, a single natural food market with a staff of nineteen. Whole Foods Market was an early entrant into the organic food market and they have used their early mover advantage to solidify their position and continue their study growth. Synopsis of the Situation In 2005 Whole Foods Market acquired the Wild Oats Food chain. Wild Oats operates 100 full service stores in 24 states and Canada. With the changing economy and a more competitive industry landscape, John Mackey is uncertain about how to meet the company’s aggressive growth targets. Whole Foods Market’s objective is to reach $12 billion in revenue with 300+ stores in 2010 without sacrificing quality and their current reputation. Key Issues With increased demands from mainstream super markets also carrying organics, the demands for such products could outreach the limited supply. Changes in the Availability of Quality Natural and Organic Products could impact our Business. There is no assurance that quality natural and organic products will be available to meet our future needs. If conventional Whole Foods Market 20073 supermarkets increase their natural and organic product offerings or if new laws require the reformulation of certain products to meet tougher standards, the supply of products may be constrained. Any significant disruption in the supply of quality natural and organic products could have a material impact on our overall sales and cost of goods.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues - Gay Teenagers and the Internet Essay

Gay Teenagers Need the Internet      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Internet serves as a platform for gay teens to express their feelings and concerns about being gay. Beyond the pornography on the Net there are also valuable and useful resources that gay teens can take advantage of. But why are these teens t using to the Internet for support? Most of the teenagers questionned for this discussion indicated that parents are not supportive of a homosexual way of life.    Most people would agree that adolescent years are some of the toughest in a persons' life. Teens are getting to know themselves sexually and learning about the world around them. While participating in a gay teen chat room, it was obvious that many g ays teens felt isolated and confused about their sexuality and turned to the Internet for advice. Unfortunately, most of the information on the Net pertaining to the gay community consists of pornographic pictures and chat rooms with dialogue full of gra phic sexual detail. Just type the word "gay" in any search on the Net it hundreds of links to x-rated sites will appear. This, of course, is not suitable for a young gay teenager in need of support. Fortunately, amongst all the porn there are wonderful sites that provide support, answer questions, and provide links to other helpful resources.    Many organizations and support groups use the Internet as their main source for posting information about gay and lesbian issues. Organizations like PFLAG (Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesb ians and Gays) provide education and support for gay teens, as well as gay adults. Branches of PFLAG can be found all over the United States. Each of these branches can be accessed through the PFLAG Web site. The site is full helpful links ... ...y to turn to for support.    Works Cited Bell, A.P. and Weinberg, M.S. "Homosexualities: A Study of Human Diversity". New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978. Conroy, Theresa. "Gay Teen Fights to Educate Tormenters." Philadelphia Daily News. 2 Jan. 1996. (23 Apr. 1998). Gibson, P. "Gay Male and Lesbian Youth Suicide, Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide", U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1989. Parents, Families, and Freinds of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG). Home page. (22 Apr. 1998). Remafedi G. "Male Homosexuality: The Adolescent's Perspective." Pediatrics, 79: 326-330, 1987. We Are Family (WAF). Home Page. (22 Apr. 1998). Youth Assistance Organization (YAO). Home page. (27 Nov. 1996).         

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Green Capitalism Essay

Green Capitalism is a new approach for resolving the problem of environmental destruction while ensure the sustainable development of capitalism practices (Bess, 2000). The world is witnessing the effects of global warming. In addition, economic sustainability remains a major concern by the global community. Based on this, green capitalism concept dictates for use of green energy sources to support the economy (Bess, 2000). By ethics of care, individual humans must protect the environment for the good of the whole community. Critics have blamed capitalism for its exploitation of available resources without concern of the negative environmental implications of the same (Beaufoy, 1993). From an ethical point of view, green capitalism concept is quite limited in its practicability due to the fact that capitalism by its nature seeks to maximize profits regardless of associated consequences (Beaufoy, 1993). On the other side, green practices dictate for protection of the environment and its ecosystem. Thus, the theory of green capitalism remains a conflict between caring for the environment and maximization of capital (Beaufoy, 1993). True to the letter, the world is claimed to have enough renewable resources to sustain its population. Nevertheless, most of these resources like solar, wind, and tidal energies are unpredictable for supporting our current economic energy requirements. Still, the green capitalism concept advocates for reduced consumption of anti-green products in the community (Bess, 2000). This has an ethical implication of harming the global market capital, a claim that has been blamed for economic meltdown (Beaufoy, 1993). As a solution to these real concerns on green capitalism theory, there is need having in place other models of addressing the problem of environmental pollution. Just to note, the effects of capitalism are permanent trends that cannot be reversed if capitalism prevails. References Bess, M. (2000). Greening the Mainstream. Environmental History, 5, 12-18. Beaufoy, H. (1993). Case Study: The Green Office in Britain: A Critical Analysis. Journal of Design History, 6, 9-14.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Incomplete Creon Tragic Hero

Allen Yun Ms. Chen English 1 Honors 16 April 2013 Oedipus Rex and Antigone Essay Prompt What would happen if one were to witness a wealthy, powerful leader who could wish for nothing more in his life? Sounds like everything a man could dream of, right? What if this mighty leader had flaws that brought him to commit a grave mistake that led him to a road of misery? How would that same witness feel towards him now? In Sophocles’ Greek tragedy, Antigone, the antagonist, King Creon, undergoes this exact scenario.Another word for a character that experiences the following events is known as a tragic hero. Creon is the tragic hero of this play because of his flaw of hubris, his hamartia, and because of his rapid transition from being a great king to a miserable king that should be pitied. The single characteristic of hubris is one of the main reasons that make Creon a tragic hero. This is first expressed when Creon’s pride refuses to show mercy to Antigone even if they are re lated.He says, â€Å"This girl is guilty of double insolence, breaking the given laws and boasting of it. Who is the man here, she or I, if this crime goes unpunished? † (Sophocles 209). One would say Creon’s arrogant pride will stop at nothing in order to obtain the authority he desperately wants to rule by. Creon is most likely the type of person to always believe his actions are just and is higher than any other because of his pride. Hubris is also expressed when Creon attempts to contradict Teiresias, who was believed to be the smartest man of his time.Creon tells Teiresias, â€Å"Teiresias, it is a sorry thing when a wise man sells his wisdom, lets out his words for hire! † (232). This is evidence to prove that Creon’s pride has blinded himself because of his outrageous attempt to go contradict a man who has never been wrong. This event also hints Creon inviting catastrophe to occur when he keeps refusing to believe what Teiresias claimed. Ergo, hubr is was one of the main reasons that made Creon the tragic hero of the play. Creon issuing his edict, which is his hamartia, was the sole reason why this hole dilemma happened. It was because of his hamartia that made Creon the tragic hero as well. Creon’s hamartia is shown when Antigone tells Creon the right thing that he should have done. She states, â€Å"Nevertheless, there are honors due all the dead. † (211). The quarrel between the two main characters shows that Creon knew that his edict contradicts divine will and Theban traditions of below ground burials of all Thebans. Creon’s response to Antigone’s statement also shows that he persists in enforcing the edict, which puts him in a collision course with the gods.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Angstrom Definition (Physics and Chemistry)

Angstrom Definition (Physics and Chemistry) An angstrom or à ¥ngstrà ¶m  is a unit of length used to measure very small distances. One angstrom is equal to  10−10  m  (one ten-billionth of a  meter  or 0.1  nanometers). Although the unit is recognized world-wide, it is not an International System  (SI) or metric unit.The symbol for angstrom is Ã…, which is a letter in the Swedish alphabet.1 Ã… 10-10 meters. Uses of the Angstrom The diameter of an atom is on the order of 1 angstrom, so the unit is particularly handy when referring to the atomic and ionic radius or size of molecules and spacing between planes of atoms in crystals. The covalent radius of atoms of chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus are about one angstrom, while the size of a hydrogen atom is about half of an angstrom. The angstrom is used in solid state physics, chemistry, and crystallography. The units is used to cite wavelengths of light, chemical bond length, and the size of microscopic structures using the electron microscope. X-ray wavelengths may be given in angstroms, as these values typically range  1–10 Ã…. Angstrom History The unit is named for Swedish physicist Anders Jonas  Ãƒâ€¦ngstrà ¶m, who used it to produce a chart of the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation in sunlight in 1868. His use of units made it possible to report the wavelengths of visible light (4000  to  7000  Ãƒâ€¦) without having to use decimals or fractions. The chart and unit became widely used in solar physics, atomic spectroscopy, and other sciences that deal with extremely small structures. Although the angstrom is  10−10  meters, it was precisely defined by its own standard because it is so small. The error in the meter standard was larger than the anstrom unit! The 1907 definition of the angstrom was the wavelength of the red line of cadmium set to be  6438.46963 international à ¥ngstrà ¶ms. In 1960, the standard for the meter was redefined in terms of spectroscopy, finally basing the two units on the same definition. Multiples of the Angstrom Other units based on the angstrom are the micron (104  Ãƒâ€¦) and the millimicron (10 Ã…). These units are used to measure thin film thicknesses and molecular diameters. Writing the Angstrom Symbol Although the symbol for the angstrom is easy to write on paper, some code is needed to produce it using digital media. In older papers, the abbreviation A.U. was sometimes used. Methods of writing the symbol include: Typing the symbol U212B or U00C5 in UnicodeUsing the symbol #8491 or #197 in HTMLUsing the code Aring; in HTML Sources International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006). The International System of Units (SI) (8th ed.).  p. 127. ISBN 92-822-2213-6.Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman, ISBN 9781405881180.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Journey Creative Writing Essay Example

Journey Creative Writing Essay Example Journey Creative Writing Essay Journey Creative Writing Essay Essay Topic: Creative If you only had a certain amount of time to live, would you live every day to the most of it? Well that’s what I have to do. I turned 40, 4 days ago and a week ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I was told I only have a few months to live. This is when I decided I had to make the most of the next few months; I decided I wanted to travel the world. I have 2 daughters, Tahlia (12yrs) and Molly (15yrs), I also have a son, Chris (16yrs). My husband was there when we were told the bad news but I didn’t know how to break it to my kids.It was just so unexpected†¦ I received a letter in the mail on the day we were leaving to go on our journey. It gave me all the more reason to go†¦ it looked as if it was written years ago; all crinkled and written in calligraphy. It has a residential address; and contact information, but it has no name to it. Maybe I should visit them? Take the letter with me and whilst I’m over there I should just pop in and trace back on who it is. The letter has a lot of information and stories about my family and the writer keeps apologising for not being there for me when I was little.I wonder if it’s a family member. Who could it be and why would I only just receive it now? I have to go visit them in France; I want to know who it is! As I said I have to make the most of my last few months so I might as well do what my heart is telling me. Well it’s time we make our way to the Sydney airport ready to fly out to Spain. The kids are so excited but curious as to why we are travelling; just like I’m curious to track down this letter. Hours and hours have passed and we have arrived in Spain, it looks so amazing here!I can’t wait to explore†¦ this is the best idea I’ve had in a long time. A taxi took us to our luxury hotel and we got settled in then it was time to hit the streets to look around. We are staying here for a week then we are moving off to France. The weather is beautiful, just like a hot summer’s day. I could get use to this. The kids just want to go shopping so perhaps we should take them down to wander the little shops on the streets. After days of shopping, swimming in lovely temperature water and just relaxing on luxurious holiday it was time to move on to our next destination; France.This is what I have been waiting for, for the past week. My husband keeps asking me if I think it’s the right thing to do but my hearts keeps telling me to go for it; to find out this mystery person. If it were him that received the letter he would want to do the exact same thing, but he just doesn’t understand how I feel, how much I want to know who this long lost person is before it’s my time to leave everyone. It’s kind of scary knowing that I haven’t got long to live and I want to go home with something special to remember; to shut my eyes to.Once again, after hours and hours we have arrived in France; I’m starting to get butterflies in my stomach, why? I think it’s because I am nervous to track down this letter†¦ now I’m getting second thoughts†¦ should I still do what my heart is telling me to do? I can’t see any harm in just going to this address and finding out who it is then just sit down with a cup of tea and talk about the letter. It wouldn’t do any harm would it? My husband seems to think I shouldn’t just rock up on their doorstep but how else would I contact them.They didn’t leave a number or a name. They just left their address and details on where they live, so maybe they will eventually be expecting me†¦ Tomorrow I will do it but for today I will just settle in and share some special time with my family as I have no time to waste. The language here is so different, not many people speak English†¦ we can hardly understand a word everyone is saying. Luckily the kid’s study French as a language at their school and pick up a few things people are saying to us. The kids are loving all the different meals to the ones we eat at home.All this is just an eye opener to them. I’m glad I brought them here to enjoy some amazing places with me in my last months with them. Anyways, back to the hotel we go, to enjoy a relaxing dinner together and to head to bed to get some sleep for an adventurous day coming our way. Woke up the next morning†¦ so excited†¦ but so†¦ so nervous. My heart is still telling me to go for it. We went down and hired a car for the rest of the time we will be staying here just so we didn’t have to catch taxis everywhere and then off we went to this address written on the letter.As we were driving up their driveway I could see a very old, fragile lady raking the leaves away from the porch. Could it be her? Maybe she wrote the letter. I got out of the car and started walking towards her, then her little voice yelled out hello my dear, can I help you? . I replied to her telling her I had some questions to ask so she invited me in for a coffee even though we were complete strangers to each other. I then got straight to it and asked her about the letter. She told me she was expecting this day to come very soon but I asked why?She said, the letter in your hand was written by your grandmother, she use to live here in this house but she asked me if this day ever came if I could pass this message on to you and tell you how she is now safe up in heaven looking over every move you make†¦ in the letter the reason she apologises to you a lot is because she didn’t give you the care you needed when you were a little girl; when your mum wasn’t there to give you the help you needed†¦ I interrupted and asked her what happened to my mum.She then went on, when you were very young, your mum was killed in a car accident but you were too little to understand. You would always tell your grandmother that you didn’t need her help because your mum would be back from her holiday and be with you soon and every time she tried to help you, you pushed her away. Anyway, that is enough of that†¦ she left some family treasures here with me and asked me to pass them on to you on this very day. Take them back home with you and keep them very safe, pass them down through the family so they will always be treasured as a family token.Thank you for making the decision to come now you have a gift of the family to keep in your heart. This was such a surprise to me; I didn’t know what to say. How could I do that to my grandmother? I didn’t even give her the chance to help bring me up as a child. Oh well, I suppose I can’t take back time and change things now. Now that that’s over and done with I feel so special inside and now I can go enjoy the rest of my time with my wonderful family in such an amazing place.We enjoyed every day for the rest of our holiday as if there were no tomorrow and it was just great knowing we were together as a family. But time went so fast and it was time to go back home, you know what they all say time goes fast when you’re having fun’. We made our way back home after a very long plane trip and some car travelling, but once we got there, it felt so good to be home. We all sat at the dinner table together and Molly asked, mum, why did we go on that trip? What was it for? .I told her what was wrong with me; sweetheart mummy is really sick, I didn’t know how to tell you guys before but now I know it’s the right thing to do, any day now mummy can just not wake up, but you guys will be okay because you will have daddy here to look after you. Mummy will be up there with her mum and grandmother and the rest of our family looking over you and guiding you through your journey of growing up. I will always be in your hearts and in your minds and no matter what I will always love you! . The kids didn’t know what to say, it was such as surprise. They all got up and hugged me as we all shed some tears.I told them everything was going to be okay and that one day we would meet again! It was one of the hardest things I have had to do, it broke my heart seeing them so upset, but I know my husband will have it all under control. We all went to bed, I tucked in my kids and told them a story that I use to tell them when they were little to put them to sleep every night. Then it was my turn†¦ I put my head on my pillow. Knowing I had come home with a gift of life, and knowing that when it’s time, I will just be reunited with my mum. I laid there†¦ and shut my eyes for the very last time†¦

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Performing Personal Hygiene Rituals Without Gravity

Performing Personal Hygiene Rituals Without Gravity There are many things we take for granted here on Earth that take on a whole new aspect in orbit. On Earth, we expect our food to stay on our plates. Water stays in containers. And, we always have an ample supply of air to breathe. In space, all those activities are a lot more difficult and require careful planning. Thats because of the microgravity environments that astronauts live in on orbit. Astronaut Ed Lu uses chopsticks to hold his food and a drink packet to keep fluids from escaping before he drinks them.   NASA The Complexity of Life in Space All human missions have to deal not only with feeding and housing astronauts, but taking care of their other bodily needs. In particular, for long-duration missions, the management of ordinary daily habits becomes even more important since these activities require sanitary conditions to operate in the weightlessness of space. Space agency folks around the world spend a lot of time designing such systems. Taking a Shower There used to be no way to take a shower on an orbital craft, so astronauts had to make do with sponge baths until they returned home. They washed with wet washcloths and utilized  soaps that do not require rinsing. Keeping clean in space is as important as it is at home, and even doubly so since astronauts at times spend long hours in space suits wearing diapers so they can stay outside and get their work done.   Astronaut Karen Nygard shows how an astronaut can do a shampoo in space. NASA Things have changed and nowadays, there are shower units on the International Space Station. Astronauts jump into a round, curtained chamber to shower. When theyre done, the machine suctions up all the water droplets from their shower.  To provide a little privacy, they extend the curtain of the WCS (Waste Collection System), the toilet or bathroom. These same systems may well be used on the Moon or an asteroid or Mars when humans get around to visiting those places in the near future.   Brushing Teeth Its not only possible to brush your teeth in space, but its also essential since the nearest dentist is a few hundred miles away if somebody gets a cavity. But, tooth brushing presented a unique problem for astronauts during early space travel. Its a messy operation- they cant really just spit in space and expect the environment to stay tidy. So, a dental consultant with NASAs Johnson Space Center in Houston developed a toothpaste, now marketed commercially as NASADent, that can be swallowed. Foamless and ingestible, it has been a major breakthrough for the elderly, hospital patients, and others who have trouble brushing their teeth.   Astronauts who can not bring themselves to swallow the toothpaste, or who have brought their own favorite brands, sometimes spit into a washcloth. Using the Toilet One of the most-asked questions that NASA receives is about bathroom rituals. Every astronaut gets asked the question, How do you go to the bathroom in space? The answer is, very carefully. Since there is no gravity to either hold a toilet bowl full of water in place or pull human wastes down, designing a toilet for zero-gravity was no easy task. NASA had to use air flow to direct urine and feces.   The toilets on the International Space Station  are designed to look and feel as similar to those on Earth as possible. However, there are some important differences. Astronauts must use straps to hold their feet against the floor and pivoting bars swing across the thighs, ensuring the user remains seated. Since the system operates on a vacuum, a tight seal is essential. Beside the main toilet bowl, there is a hose, which is utilized as a urinal by men and women. It can be used in a standing position or can be attached to the commode by a pivoting mounting bracket for use in a sitting position. A separate receptacle allows for disposal of wipes. All units use flowing air instead of water to move waste through the system. The human waste is separated and solid wastes are compressed, exposed to vacuum, and stored for later removal. Wastewater is vented to space, although future systems may recycle it. The air is filtered to remove odor and bacteria and then returned to the station. This is the toilet device used onboard the Russian Soyuz craft.   Maksym Kozlenko, CC BY-SA-4.0 Future waste-removal systems on long-term missions may involve recycling for onboard hydroponics and gardens systems or other recycling requirements. Space bathrooms have come a long way from the early days when astronauts had pretty crude methods to handle the situation. Fast Facts Personal hygiene tasks in space are a lot more complex than here on Earth. The low-gravity environment requires more care.Shower systems have been installed on space stations, but they require very careful attention to make sure water does not stray into the crew compartments and electronics.Toilet facilities use suction and other devices to direct materials for safe storage and away from the walls and electronics. Edited and updated by  Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Geopolitical factors and the possible involvement of the U.S. in the Assignment

Geopolitical factors and the possible involvement of the U.S. in the BSEC region - Assignment Example It would be noted that geopolitical factors commonly entails political issues that arise as a result of geographical factors1. In this sense, the issue of geographic proximity from the existing BSEC member states and for that the Black Sea from the U.S ought to be considered. It will be noted that the existing members include Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Moldova, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine, most of who are also members of the European Union2. What this implies is that there are different geographic concerns and needs that these nations have from the United States. As a result, one would wonder if the issue with Romania joining the E.U where there was an increase in disparity will not arise again. As noted by Grama, because of the perceived geographic disadvantage that Romania suffered, most of the interests that could be protected for the country were shifted to the other 4 major CBC programs that Romania was involved in.3 It is therefore importan t for the U.S to consider the issue of how effective it can be with the level of distance that exists between itself and the other member states, and the fact that the other members belong to a different economic block must be considered. There is also the factor of geopolitical factor of equitable distribution of resources within the geographic free zone of the Black Sea and how this will affect the U.S in terms of the size of the country. This is because in comparison to the other countries, the size of U.S. may be far larger than all the other countries; even when they are put together4. This means that there could be a possible problem with equity; from whichever size it is viewed. That is, when resources are shared in the same quantity among member states, the U.S is going to have a proportionally smaller quantum than it requires. On the other hand, when the sharing is done in relation to the sizes of the nations, the others are going to

Friday, October 18, 2019

Impact of a water Jet laboratory Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Impact of a water Jet laboratory - Lab Report Example The term molar mass of a given substance is often used to refer to the mass of one mol of a substance (Computer-Based Laboratory, 2007). In mathematical terms, it is often expressed as an average molecular mass of molecules in the given substance when multiplied by Avogadro’s constant often approximated as 6.022Ãâ€"1023. It can be shown molar mass = (1/6.022) Ãâ€"10-23g/u) Ãâ€" (6.022Ãâ€"1023/mol) Ãâ€" average molecular mass (Lide, 2005).This experiment was set up to use the freezing point depression to determine the molecular mass of benzoic acid. This was possible by first determining the freezing point of pure lauric acid and lauric- benzoic mixture, then calculating the molality of solution and the moles of benzoic acid as shown below. In this lab Experiment the apparatus and materials used included Lab Quest , Lab Quest App Temperature Probe, two 18 Ãâ€" 150 mm test tubes 400 mL beaker, ring stand, paper towel or tissue 4 – 1, Lab Quest 4, lauric acid, CH3(CH2)10COOH lauric acid-benzoic acid mixture hot water bath and the utility clamp. In this experiment the procedure was as follow. The initial step involved obtaining and wearing goggles. This was followed by connecting the Temperature Probe to Lab Quest and choosing New from the File menu. For the case where one had an older sensor that does not auto-ID, manually, he/she had to set up the sensor. The next step involved tapping the rate on the Meter screen, then changing the data-collection rate to 1 sample/second and the data-collection length to 600 seconds. This was part one of the experiment in which one had to determine the Freezing Temperature of Pure Lauric Acid. After this part, the next procedure was to add about 300 mL of tap water with a temperature of 20–25 °C to a 400 mL beaker and then placing the beaker on the base of the ring stand. The utility clamp was then used to obtain a test tube containing hot, melted lauric acid from the instructor while making sure

E-commerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6500 words

E-commerce - Essay Example This technology has become the inseparable part of organizational integration, marketing, HRM, and customer retention. Hence, the firms with non-viable features are most likely to fail in the current business environment. Hundreds and millions of customers today rely on internet, either to purchase something or to collect information about various products and services they require. This fast growing trend is fondly referred to ‘e-commerce’ which forces entrepreneurs to modify their business in accordance with the market changes. In order to be competitive, organizations need to have instant and accurate access to information about their own resources and assets. Since the potential of the internet, as an integral tool of a company’s Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and decision making has been proven, companies heavily depend on the web based technology. This report will examine the main features of e-commerce, changing business models, features of digital mark ets and digital goods, various internet business models, principal payment systems in e-commerce, and new developments in the area etc. If a company runs its business functions electronically, the method can be called e-commerce. However, the type of e-commerce that a firm adopts depends on its organizational structure, size, business area, target segments, and many other factors. In common, e-commerce is effective between business and business, between business and consumers, between business and employees, between consumer and consumer etc. Regardless of the category of e-commerce, there is clear indication of more consumers and businesses entering the stream of electronic commerce. For instance, in the United States alone 2 percent of all retail sales revenue is generated from e-commerce; and coming days would witness tremendous upside growth in this area (Lauden & Lauden, J. P. 2007, p. 303). The term B2B refers to the sales and transactions between business groups which

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Dealing with Death and Dying Personal Statement - 1

Dealing with Death and Dying - Personal Statement Example I felt satisfied with the condition of the patient and the family before the incident occurred. This was because both the patient and the family had accepted the imminent death of Betty. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (1969) in her book On Death and Dying has pointed that openly acknowledging the imminence of death and assisting the patient and family in addressing their issues of immediate concern would significantly improve the quality of the dying process. I had made efforts to ensure that rather than denying the situation the family could come together and support each other. I saw them expressing important emotional feelings for each other. I knew that this interaction was going a long way in helping Betty to resolve unresolved issues. I felt that she was being freed of emotional bondages so that the physical process could take its course peacefully. What was bad about the experience was the sight of a patient for whom I had worked hard in tears. I was reassured when I found that the reason for Betty's sadness was a dream rather than negligence on my part. I know that the emotional turmoil that goes on in a person who is dying is very intense. So I had taken every effort to address as many of these issues as possible and to be ready for all physical as well as emotional contingencies. When Betty shared with me about her dream I was a little unprepared. Especially as my personal belief is that dreams are a reflection of reality and was not inclined to accept that loved ones who have passed away could appear in dreams. However, as a nurse giving palliative care, I was aware that I needed to be sensitive to the beliefs of the patient.  

Successful implementation & methodology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Successful implementation & methodology - Essay Example When implemented with these elements in mind, BPR can be successful and may be absolutely vital to the health of an organisation. The factors that impact a successful Business Process Reengineering (BPR) fall into the categories of implementation and environmental. The first factor to consider in the implementation is the design of the project. The project should be visionary and realistic. The design of the BPR needs to take into account the strategic goals of the business and consider the direction of the organisation. Timeframes must be adequate to allow for the team to accomplish its goals. There are key questions to be asked during project design phase. Will it provide any competitive advantage Will it remain competitive in the long term These questions require knowledge of the business environment. Grover et al. (1995 p. 112) asserts that " A major finding of the planned change approach indicates that implementation success occurs when commitment to change exists; commitment to the project exists; and the project is well defined and plans are clearly specified". The design team will need to know the product, the market, and the customers to complete a successful design. The redesign phase is one of the most important factors in any methodology. To be of any value, the redesign needs to be accompanied by a cost/benefit analysis. Is the redesign worth the cost of reengineering What are the risks involved with the redesign Radical change involves cost cutting measures that may impact vendors, suppliers, and employees. Stoddard & Jarvenpaa (1995 p.105) warns that, "... revolutionary change process might not be feasible given the risk and cost of revolutionary tactics". Companies need to assess the risk and evaluate the degree of change tolerance that they may be subjected to. Communication is another key factor to aid in the success of BPR. Management needs to communicate with the staff the scope and the motivation of the project. Communication is also essential to get employees to think about the new way of doing business. If the project involves downsizing, the workforce needs to be aware of the plans and the alternatives that will be provided. The design phase should include a Human Resources strategy. The major threads that run throughout the successful implementation of BPR are, "...communication, empowerment, people involvement, training and education, creating a culture for change, and stimulating receptivity of the organisation to change are the most important factors related to change management and culture" (Al-Mashari & Zairi, 1999 p.88). These issues revolve around the human resource issue. It is imperative that communication with the employees be

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Dealing with Death and Dying Personal Statement - 1

Dealing with Death and Dying - Personal Statement Example I felt satisfied with the condition of the patient and the family before the incident occurred. This was because both the patient and the family had accepted the imminent death of Betty. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (1969) in her book On Death and Dying has pointed that openly acknowledging the imminence of death and assisting the patient and family in addressing their issues of immediate concern would significantly improve the quality of the dying process. I had made efforts to ensure that rather than denying the situation the family could come together and support each other. I saw them expressing important emotional feelings for each other. I knew that this interaction was going a long way in helping Betty to resolve unresolved issues. I felt that she was being freed of emotional bondages so that the physical process could take its course peacefully. What was bad about the experience was the sight of a patient for whom I had worked hard in tears. I was reassured when I found that the reason for Betty's sadness was a dream rather than negligence on my part. I know that the emotional turmoil that goes on in a person who is dying is very intense. So I had taken every effort to address as many of these issues as possible and to be ready for all physical as well as emotional contingencies. When Betty shared with me about her dream I was a little unprepared. Especially as my personal belief is that dreams are a reflection of reality and was not inclined to accept that loved ones who have passed away could appear in dreams. However, as a nurse giving palliative care, I was aware that I needed to be sensitive to the beliefs of the patient.  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Procter & Gamble in Japan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Procter & Gamble in Japan - Essay Example 1. Proctor & Gamble during the 1970’s and 1980’s utilized a centralized marketing approach in which the US headquarters had full control of the marketing initiatives both in the United States and abroad. The company felt that this strategy was more effective because it provided a simple method that could be transferred elsewhere which provided savings and helped the company achieved benefits associated with economies of scale. The reality of this strategy in Japan was that the company was not doing poorly in this international market. The company by 1985 after being established in Japan for 13 years was losing nearly $40 million a year (Hill, 2007). Along with the obvious monetary losses the disadvantages of the centralized marketing strategy in Japan was that the company was not able to fully meet the consumer needs. The culture of Japan and the consumer taste were much different than in the United States. The strategy was inflexible and did not provide room for the ne cessary changes based on market research and consumer trends. Â  2. After years of struggling in the Japanese market with various products after 1990, the company decided a new approach. It created products based on the specific cultural profile Japan. A product that was introducing utilizing this new decentralized marketing approach was Joy detergent. The country-specific research showed that the Japanese people were changing their cooking habits towards the higher volume of fried foods which meant that the people needed a product that was more powerful cleaning up grease dishes. The company also considered other key stakeholders in its design in the process in order to ensure success. The packaging of the product was tailored made to ensure supermarkets and other stores could maximize its shelf space. The strategy provided many benefits for the company, but there were some drawbacks.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Essay Example for Free

Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Essay There is no definition of abnormal psychological which has approval by the psychological social groups. Although, knowing of ones abnormal mindset is essential in assessing personal behaviors in determining what is intended (Hansell Damour, 2008). Abnormal social content is often looked upon as personal behavior opposing to social normality. This structure is essential in analizing the abnormal mindset and focus to accurately filter conduct presented whether unusual or usual. This paper will determine the start of what presents abnormal mindset and how the developement is originated for use scientifically. Lastly, the paper will inspect the psychodynamic, humanistic and existential, behavioral, cognitive, sociocultural, family support and biological theoretical areas important to the strength of abnormal psychology. Origins of Abnormal Psychology The development of abnormal mindset can be transcribed for thousands of years. To this date, people have evolved in specified cases of undesired conduct. Historically, unusual conduct is seen as biological, psychological outcomes seen also as supernatural factors (Hansell Damour, 2008). The observation of unusual conduct is often believed individuals acknowledge the idea of depletion of bad spirits, devils, and intities (Hansell Damour, 2008). As far back as the Mesolithic period, normal practices of torture would be practiced to those who displayed unusual conduct to be pardoned. Additionally, the use of exorcisms was performed to extinguish the existance of paranormal activities. Additionally, in the Roman era the chemicals in an individuals head would be released to extinguish the individuals from unusual conduct. This tyoe of consequence was passed on into the Dark Ages; Europeans viewed this conduct as psychological disease which drew evil spirits to such individuals for posse ssion. Torture was practiced on individuals who presented unusual behaviors, and was common to relinquish an evil spirt for centuries. Challenges to Defining and Classifying Normal and Abnormal Behavior Though an individual can present unusual conduct, he or she is viewed as one who violates expectations or rules in a society or culture (Hansell Damour, 2008). A lack of understanding is particularly notable because of various traditions and culture is viewed differently in consideration of the beliefs of certain traditions. An example is, a typical American will eat at a fast food chain for a quick bite at the work place, whereas many cultures from euopean all the way to middle eastern will bring his or her ethnic food to ingest, but do not condone this type of conduct. On the flip side, woman in the Middle East receive harsh abuse and it is not against the law for men to treat woman this way, but in the United States it is against the law for men to abuse their woman and he will receive a criminal offense for such behavior. In other words, it depends on the culture to consider if the unusual conduct violates law or social acknowledgement, decisions are relatively complex from area to area. Unusual conduct can affect people negatively presently, but may be viewed as usual conduct in the future. How Abnormal Psychology has evolved into a Scientific Discipline The scientific element concept within the unusuwl aspects of psychology was developed by Hippocrates, a greek doctor. Hippocrates believed biological patterns are responsible for such unusual conduct. Hippocrates believed through biological cause an individual will be more likely to be cured from such illness. Also, Hippocrates referred the brain as a componant being responsible for an individual’s intelligence, awareness and cleverness. With such reference, these components play a significant role in how an individual displays his or her conduct (Hansell Damour, 2008). Historically, thousands of years ago, individuals who displayed unusual conduct were labled as witches, or unusual conduct would draw in devils. The frequent attendance of church would increase because of the severity of such fear of evil. Following, the enligtenment era develoloped where unusual conduct was analysed throughly before considered a consequence for various discrepancies of an individuals brain fu nctions, an acceptance was generally regarded as a psychological disease that accounted for the use of various remedies that were implemented (Hansell Damour, 2008). Development of Abnormal Psychology: Biological and Theoretical Perspectives Unusual psychology on a biological viewpoint invests with the unusual acts that rooy from an inbalance within the brain. The use of psychotropic medications are used on a theraputic regimen to help elliviate symptoms; additionally, treatments used such as electro- convolsive therapy , and psychdynamic hypothisis to aid human contact on influences psychological through the unconscious mind (Hansell Damour, 2008). For most part, an individual’s conduct is essential and is charactorized from a previous experience. Psychoanalysis is used as an approach in the theraputic needs. The use of the behavioral model is essential when conditioning is relevent. Depending on the situation, the use of operant and classical conditioning are considered (Hansell Damour, 2008). Therefore, unusual conduct, and its reactives are performed to elleviate psychological disorders through the conditiining process and behavioral therapy to cure such disorder. In the 1960s, Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck implemented the cognitive approach to establish cognitive function using procedures to open conduct, stimulate ideas, feelings which establish personality and individual attitudes (Hansell Damour, 2008).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

2D Colloidal Nanocrystal for Optoelectronic and Solar Cell

2D Colloidal Nanocrystal for Optoelectronic and Solar Cell Novel 2D colloidal nanocrystal for optoelectronic and solar cell applications Recently, 2D material has attracted tremendous attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Particularly, the discovery of graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice has ignited the research on this class of 2D materials due to extraordinary mechanical, electric and optical properties not observed in their bulk counterparts. Considering graphene is a simple material composed of only carbon element, it cannot satisfy the increasing requirements of diverse applications due to limitations in the versatility and the tunability of composition, structure and functionality in addition to the paradox between the high-mobility Fermi−Dirac electronic structure and the need for a size-dependent band gap for traditional semiconductor devices. As a result, of paramount importance and interest is to search alternative 2D materials which possess much more flexibility and diversity of composition, structure, and functionality. Layered metal di chalcogenides such as WS2 and MoS2 have been extensively investigated. Like graphite, the atoms within the host layers form strong covalent bonding with relatively weaker interactions between layers such as van der Waals force. Consequently, micromechanical cleavage by Scotch-tape is the most straightforward method to obtain an individual layer while retaining their intrinsic host structure. Though it is crucial to evaluate their physical properties, this approach is time-consuming and the yield is also low. More recently, a direct liquid exfoliation where a suitable solvent is selected to stabilize cleaved crystallites was proposed to produce nanosheets. This process, comprised of ion-exchange, osmotic swelling, and exfoliation, is useful, but the concentration of unilamellar nanosheet in the solution is still very low with the yield no more than a few tens of percentage and the properties of the resulting nanosheets are dictated by their parent 3D materials, which loses the opport unities to design and control over chemical composition and structure. In order to meet the demand for fabrication of functional nanostructured electronic and optoelectronic devices, a facile process to produce large amount of 2D nanocrystal (NC) with possibility of tuning the properties is really imperative. Colloidal chemical synthetic route has been demonstrated highly attractive and powerful for their low-cost synthesis to obtain NCs from solution in excellent yield with a good uniformity in terms of chemical composition, surface properties, shape, and size. The complete control over size, shape and structure of the colloidal NCs via tuning reaction chemistry provides new pathways to design material where size or shape dependent properties can be exploited. In this project, the metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WS2, typically with a trilayer structure of covalently interconnected layers of S, M, and S atoms, will be the main candidates. High performance solar cells built from them in 2D NC form is the final goal. As such, colloidal synthetic route will require balance of the reagent choice and reaction chemistry to accurately control the growth in the NC. All the advantages of 2D colloidal NCs will be exploited to fabricate solar cells in low cost while retaining efficiencies towards 10%. The objectives of this proposal are as follows: Develop colloidal synthetic routes for 2D colloidal NCs. Balance the reagent choice and ligand chemistry to achieve NC growth with controllable size, shape, and particularly thickness. Assemble 2D colloidal NCs to device scale area and perform correlative material studies with electronic properties (carrier lifetime, photoluminescence, carrier mobility). Fabricate all-inorganic NC solar cells and optimize in the device parameter space towards high power conversion efficiency. The project will be divided into three work packages (WPs) with a number of tasks in each WP structured to achieve the aims and objectives. Work Package 1 Controllable synthesis Task 1.1 Develop colloidal synthetic routes to 2D semiconductor NCs. Hot-injection method which involves the injection of a cold solution of precursor molecules into hot liquid will be employed due to the instantaneous formation of nuclei with slow growth of the existing nuclei but not to new nucleation for well controlled size and thickness. The product will be separated by centrifuging and washed up for characterization and analysis by XRD, electron diffraction and HRTEM for structure, and EDS and Raman for chemical composition. Task 1.2 Monitor and control the thickness, doping and their effect on the optical properties. Unlike 0D and 1D NC, in addition to control over composition and structure of 2D NCs, of particular interest is to rationally design and tune the thickness-dependent optical and electronic properties. For example, few-layer MoS2 has an indirect bandgap, but when it is thinned to single-layer, it becomes direct bandgap leading to enhanced photoluminesence. In this task we will monitor the effects of the thickness distribution particularly on absorption and photoluminescence (lifetime and QY). The latter will also be used as a metric to decide on the more promising routes for device fabrication, focusing on highly PL materials as the most promising candidates. In addition, substitutional or interstitial doping of metal sites within 2D NC may be employed to engineer optical characteristics. Work Package 2 Optoelectronic Properties of NC solids The presence of covalently bound ligands on the surface of colloidal NC provide a versatile synthetic handle for tailoring the structure, stability, and importantly electronic and optical properties. The deviation of composition and atom arrangement along the terminating edge and corner sites of 2D colloidal NCs also offers another way to tune their properties. One of the key determinant factors of the performance of solar cells is the carrier mobility. In this task we will investigate ligand exchange strategies using ligands that are shorter than 0.3 nm and contain functional head groups such as di-thiol groups and carboxyl-acid based groups. At the same time those functional groups should serve to passivate dangling bonds and therefore their electron-donating density will be chosen accordingly. We will monitor the effect of those ligands on carrier mobility by performing CELIV measurements in diode structures resembling an actual solar cell device architecture as well as using FET mobility measurements. In addition to high carrier mobilities NC solids for efficient solar cells call for long carrier lifetimes. Such long lifetimes can be achieved by suppressing trap states and recombination centers typically caused at grain boundaries and interfaces. The role of this task is to monitor the degree of passivation of the ligands utilized with Photoluminescence and PL-lifetime measurements. Work Package 3 Photovoltaic device fabrication, testing and optimizing Task 3.1 We will develop simple Schottky and bilayer heterostructures in which the sole photoactive layer is the 2D NC which can be achieved by using a transparent n-type high bandgap semiconductor to form a junction. We will then perform carrier lifetime and recombination-rate characterization employing transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements. Task 3.2 Optimization of heterojunctions based on 2D NCs. We will perform a device optimization study in which we will study the effect of layer thickness and contact selection to maximize efficiency. The optimized thickness will be sought as a combination of the expected carrier diffusion length and achievable depletion widths based on the mobility, lifetime and carrier density of the semiconductor. Appropriate contacts will be investigated based either on inorganic (MoOx) or organic hole transport layers (electron blocking layers).

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Importance of Public Awareness Essay -- Alzhei

Imagine greeting your grandmother and being met with a blank stare. Think about how it would feel to watch as your father forgets how to drive or dress himself. Picture your own mother crying out for her long dead parents and siblings. Try to envision the look on a loved one’s face as you tell them that they can no longer live at home alone. Now put yourself in their place-- slowly losing your freedom, your memory, and your very identity. Welcome to the world of Alzheimer’s disease. This is the reality that nearly fifteen million caregivers and over five million patients must face every day. Public awareness must be raised about Alzheimer’s disease and the people it affects. Alzheimer’s disease was discovered in 1906 by German physician Alois Alzheimer. While studying the biopsy of the brain of a fifty-five year old woman who had suffered some type of severe dementia, he noticed some aberrations in her brain structure. The brain appeared shrunken, with enlarged crevasses in the gray matter. Over a century later, we now know that Alzheimer’s is caused by a mixture of chemical and cellular brain abnormalities and the breaking down of cells in the mind. Most of the defects occur in the cerebral cortex, which is the outer gray matter of the brain and the center of most human-like brain functions like memory, language, and thought. About ten percent of the nerves in the cerebral cortex die as the disease progresses, causing the person to lose previously created synapses (connections between nerve cells). Neurofibrillary tangles, which are abnormally twisted and knotted strands within nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, also contribute to the cognitive impairment. Nerve cells in the brain lose the ability to create vita... ... a disorder that plays a huge role in the United States, and one that needs to be recognized. Public awareness of Alzheimer’s will stimulate research to increase, more support to be made available to those directly affected, financial solutions to be found, and an overall increase in understanding and compassion. By informing people about Alzheimer’s and its consequences, we can truly begin to battle this devastating disease. â€Æ' Works Cited Alzheimer's Association. 2011 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures. Annual Report, Washington: Alzheimer's Association, 2011. August, Paul Nordstrom. Brain Function. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. Check, William A. Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989. Harmon, Dan. Life Out of Focus; Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1999.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Exploring the Past Essay

All of us have little secrets which we don’t want to share with others – things which we are ashamed of, things which are too intimate to tell or just things which happened in the past and we don’t want to tell them because they may hurt someone or they may cause troubles to us. I have the perfect example that exploring the past sometimes may be painful. I have a friend – Lora- which is very amorous and gives all of herself for her boyfriend. But her ex one didn’t understand that. Tom – her ex-boyfriend was very weird and he wanted to know all about Lora’s previous relationships. One day he asked her why she has broken up with her last boyfriend. At first she didn’t want to talk about that but he was urging her. So she told Tom that she has betrayed her last boyfriend and that was the reason of their parting. When she has been at a party at a friend of her she has got very drunk and a boy from the party has embraced the opportunity and got alone with her. In the morning she couldn’t remember anything but it has been too late. The lover had gone off. Her only fault was that she had drunk so much but she wasn’t guilty for the rest of the occurrence. But her then boyfriend didn’t understand that and he left her although she loved him very much. As for Tom he thought Lora could do that again. They have been together for two years and he chucked her up because she might repeat the same mistake again. It was such a stupid reason. She could correct her mistake but she loved Tom very much. He loved her too but feelings were obviously insufficient to keep them together. They both pined after each other for a long but they didn’t get together again. We can’t return the time and fix our mistakes, nobody can change the past. So it is extremely purposeless to explore the old times. It’s just a waste of time which we can spend in creating the future.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Acc202 Mod3 Case Essay

ACC202 Module 3 Case Pg.1 ACC202 Module 3 Case James Davis Trident University ACC202 Module 3 Case Pg.2 Explain the main differences between the absorption and contribution (behavioral, variable) income statements. Will net income always be the same under the two approaches? If not, explain the difference. Under absorption income statement, the cost of per unit of inventory is inclusive of direct material, direct labor, variable manufacturing overhead and fixed manufacturing overhead. on the other hand, in case of variable costing income statement, cost per unit of inventory is inclusive of direct material, direct labor, variable manufacturing overhead. In case of absorption costing income statement, the gross margin is computed by deducting the cost of goods sold from the sales. On the other hand, in case of variable costing income statement variable expenses are deducted from sales to arrive at contribution margin and the fixed expenses are deducted from the contribution margin to arrive at sales. In case of absorption costing, the inventories are always valued at full costs. On the other hand, under variable costing, inventories are always valued at variable costs. The net income under two approaches will be the same if the production equals sales. In case the production is more than the sales, then absorption costing will show more profit than the variable costing income statement because the closing stock is valued at high cost per unit compared to variable costing because of inclusion of fixed manufacturing cost in the cost per unit. See more:  The 3 Types of Satire Essay Comment specifically on why companies feel the need to create yet another income statement in a different format. What information can the company  gleam from this approach which is helpful as a tool in the decision making process. Managers need more ,and often times different, information than does outside organizations. The managers are the ones making the decisions that will affect the future of the company. The income statements that are created show much more detail and are formatted for specific reasons that are beneficial to the organization. ACC202 Module 3 Case Pg.3 Explain situations in which break-even analysis can be a useful tool. Provide a specific example. The goal of a break-even analysis is to show when a product is going to profitable. It allows managers to see what affects different cost changes have on the profit margin. An example of this is when Company A is developing product B. The break-even analysis shows all costs associated with producing that product. It also shows how much of the product must be sold in order to recoup the total cost of production. It will also allow managers to tweak things such as sell price to influence the outcome.

Enforcing Racial Discrimination Essay

The series of photographs documented by the Farm Security Administration of the Office of War Information photographers were taken between 1937 and 1943, presumably during the years the unit was in operation. These photographers were tasked to document various manifestations of change and continuity in the prevalent American life, and this resulted in a vivid collection of images that particularly focused on the practice of racial segregation. Curiously, while the photographers were not officially acknowledged to have been directed to document specific scenes, the prints produced exhibited a skew toward signs that indicate racial discrimination and segregation (LOC 2004). Among the thirty-one photos included in the series, all depict signs situated in a number of locations such as bus and train stations, restaurants, cafes, bars, movie theaters, stores, and billiard halls. These signs also collectively show the use of words such as â€Å"colored† and â€Å"white’, which clearly validate the existence of segregation between Caucasian Americans and individuals of ethnic origins such as blacks and Indians. True to the era during which they were photographed, the environment and people incidentally present in each picture appear in authentic manners of architecture and fashion. II. Racial Segregation in America The issue on race and discrimination in America can be famously traced centuries back, with the history of Africans being brought into the country as slaves. Though this deplorable condition had been corrected by the gains of the Civil War, thus granting freedom to blacks. However, the occurrence of the Great Depression in the 1920s brought back situations identical to those experienced by African-Americans previously, as the country was beset by the chaos produced by the lack of jobs and sources of income. In 1932, most blacks found themselves without work, and there was increasing pressure from whites to have blacks fired from any job that they believed should be assigned to unemployed whites. Numerous forms of racial violence again ensued, particularly in the South, during the 1930s (LOC 2002). The legal foundation of racial segregation was the Jim Crow laws, which were imposed in the 1860s mainly in railroad cars, and continued to be enforced throughout the decades until the 1960s (McElrath 2008). The effects of segregation on typical American life and society were apparently significant enough to create scenes extraordinary enough to tell their own stories through photographs, which were precisely what the Farm Security collection achieved. III. Beyond the Signs: Marking the Lines of Race The objective of the Farm Security photographs had been to depict regular American life, yet it is clear how the typicality of the images at the time does not lend itself in the same nature today. There is a point of discussion in the deliberate move to show not just groups of whites and ethnic people, but the centering on the signs that limit freedom, that erase the function of choice. The study of signs, known as semiotics, provides the connection between the audience, interpreter, and the sign itself (Littlejohn 2008). The photos, with their studied involvement of the actual sign, venue, and individuals, already form the three-part process; the blacks are the audience and the photographer is the interpreter, within the space covered by the sign. This shows how the photographers aimed to convey a reality, a system that used semiotics as a way to impose discrimination. This they had done with not just a bit of participation on their end, quite like the way Coles (1997) appropriated documentary work with the linking of lives with the subject. The same logic is utilized by Gripsrud (in Gillespie and Toynbee 2006), when he classified a photographer’s work as indexical—the identifying of a specific aspect of a subject—and therefore lends to much subjectivity. IV. Showing Signs of Racial Conflict to an Audience While the audience of the signs were the blacks—and whites, depending on the sign and situation—the photos’ audience are people who would benefit from knowledge of a different period, as was the arguable objective of the Farm Security photographers in documenting change and continuity in American life. Mainly, the photos were for research and evaluation, whether or not the audience would find them appalling or give them their approval. It may be possible that some of those who comprise the audience are people who have lived through the same era, making them mere confirmations of what they already know; but the more relevant audience would be the uninformed, who would find new insight into American society and its management of racial issues in the late 1930s and early 40s. V. Appropriation of Technique and Style in Communicating Racism The black-and-white photography is already significant on its own, referring to the subjects as well; seeing words on the signs captured in the photographs deals a double blow—‘black’, or ‘colored’, and ‘white’ signs in black-and-white photos. The photographers simply captured the signs as they were, specially for those in venues without people milling around, but there were also photos that provided degrees of humanity and emotion. One of the most striking is a photo of a bar showing whites having beer, a sign on the wall above them that says â€Å"Positively no beer sold to Indians†. Though Indians are known for their penchant for alcohol, it is disturbing one clear sign can show how this ethnic group is singled out and discriminated against—an error of generalization. The white people in the photo appear serious and quite professional, which indicates how the sign should not be misconstrued as a joke. Other photos in the collection, though showing signs and places rather than people as subjects, reveal the increasing culture of urbanization—shown by the railroads, buses, and stores where the signs are found. Urbanization, being common ground for both blacks and whites, necessitates signs; these indicate white control over society and economy, and the intent to keep ‘colored’ people away from this power. Works Cited Primary Source: Library of Congress. â€Å"Photographs of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination: Documentation by Farm Security Administration-Office of War Information Photographers†. Prints & Photographs Reading Room. April 30, 2004. Secondary Sources: Coles, Robert. â€Å"The Tradition: Fact and Fiction†. Doing Documentary Work. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Gripsrud, Jostein. â€Å"Semiotics: signs, codes and cultures†. In Gillespie, Marie and Jason Toynbee. Analysing Media Texts. Berkshire: Open University Press, 2006. Library of Congress. â€Å"Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945: Race Relations in the 1930s and 1940s†. 2002. McElrath, Jessica. â€Å"Creation of Jim Crow South: Segregation in the South†. About. com. 2008.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Becoming Global Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Becoming Global - Coursework Example If the party promises to accept the agreement, the other party must promise to give something in return (Burnett, 2004). A valid offer has a clear communication and is specific and definite in its terms. Considering the above three proposals, the first proposal gives a valid offer. The contractor clearly communicates the terms of her offer. She also gives the time lapse of the offer. The other three offers only communicate the quantity of the product they would produce and the cost of purchasing them. They do not give definite terms of the offer (Moens & Gillies, 2000). Gloria wants to engage in a global business because she wants to expand her business. Her concern is that if she engages in a business with the large retailer supplier, she will have to cut down her costs. However, she should consider other issues. Such issues are the laws of that country, the taxes that she would pay and language issues. She should also consider employing trusted employees for her business to succeed ( Hayward, 2012). Gloria can protect herself and her family from persona liability by obtaining an insurance cover for her business. She can also have some by-laws that would allow another person from the company to act on her behalf (Annabel,

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Ms. Martinez Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ms. Martinez Case Study - Essay Example On first physical exam she did not bring her old medical records and patient history. Al dough the results of her examinations were all right, her physician noticed that she was due for mammogram. She had to wait next 6 weeks for it. A week after the mammogram exam, results came. Dr.McGonagl, her physician told her that examination showed abnormal findings, and that she needs to visit surgeon for biopsy. First opening with the surgeon was 9 weeks later. For that period, Ms Martinez could not sleep from worry and fear.Old mammogram findings showed that there is a possibility of abnormal findings, but no one was noticed about it, nor her, nor her primary care physician. Biopsy showed that she has unusual form of cancer which had spread on lymph nodes and that Ms Martinez has to decide which kind of surgery to have. She decided for mastectomy, but when she arrived to hospital, some important laboratory findings were missing. Surgery was almost postponed, but hospital staff tracked down the missing laboratory results. Several lymph nodes were found during mastectomy, so Ms Martinez had to visit surgeon, oncologist, radiologist, as well as her primary care physician. Six months later, another lump was found, this tim e under her arm. Often irrational and unequal, American medical care system should be, according to recommendations of Advisory Commission on Cons

Monday, October 7, 2019

Republic of China Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Republic of China - Essay Example What makes all of this even more amazing is how little the average westerner knows about the lives, economic, social, and political, of 1.6 billion people. Every now and again, we read in the news about how China offers a great vacation, we see a "Free Tibet" sticker on the back of a car, or we notice that our newest gadget or piece of clothing was made in China. If one reads the right newspapers, they might think that Communist China is on the verge of collapse and massive democratic reforms are just a few years away. Upon closer inspection, however, this is clearly not the case. This paper will argue that the prospects for massive democratic reforms in China are very poor. It will do this by arguing that there is very little internal economic or social impetus for political change and Chinese leaders are unlikely to be swayed by Western Nations into instituting democratic reforms. Despite the fact that the Communist Party in China will remain relatively stable into the foreseeable future, there are still many problems that the party needs to address if it is to maintain it's stronghold in China. One of the primary reasons why one may think that the Communist party is likely to become more democratic in the near future is the success of the economic reforms, which began in 1978. According to Tony Saich, the Chinese government did three very important things in 1978 which would allow for future the future growth of the economy and allow for greater interaction with the rest of the world. First, economic modernization was made central to all party work. Ideology and class struggle were down-played and policy-making became more pragmatic, summed up in the slogan 'practice is the sole criterion for testing truth' and corresponding policy line of 'correcting mistakes wherever they are discovered.' Second, despite the plenum's decision to forget about the past and concentrate on the future, the new 'practice' slogan was used both at the plenum and subsequently to reverse a whole series of previous political judgmentsThird, the plenum formed the source for a new policy direction that gradually increased the influence of market forces in the Chinese economy.4 Of course, the economic reforms were very complex and continue to evolve to this day, and include entry into the World Trade Organization. Whole books have been written about this single process, needless to say, the economic reforms have had a major impact. Author Andrew Walder writes that, China's post-Mao economic reforms have generated rapid and sustained economic growth, unprecedented rises in real income and living standards, and have transformed what was once one of the world's most insular economies into a major trading nation.5 In a speech to the Fourth International Investment Forum, Gregory Chow said Since economic reform started in China in 1978, there has been a remarkable growth in GDP, to the order of 9.5 percent per year on average. What accounts for this tremendous success To answer in one sentence, the Chinese government has adopted institutions and policies that enable the resourceful Chinese people and foreign friends to unleash their energy to develop the Chinese economy. The farmers became energetic and productive since the 1979. The township and village enterprises were the most dynamic element for growth in the 1980s and early 1990s. Many private and foreign

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Entrepreneurship----Economists views on the innovation and Essay

Entrepreneurship----Economists views on the innovation and entrepreneurship - Essay Example market, of determining opportunities, optimizing potential ventures or partnership, strategizing decision-making capabilities, improving communication skills, developing good interpersonal relation with customers, and in attaining business intelligence (Carter & Jones-Evans, 2006, pp, 1-10; 129-151). Expert entrepreneurs are observed to have adopted some business patterns and have gain expertise in organizational planning, executing, selecting human resources, performance management, evaluation, and in doing excellent market analysis (Carter & Jones-Evans, 2006, pp. 152-175). They constantly update themselves on trends and readily adapt to changes to leverage itself from every opportunities. Entrepreneurs also study business laws and policies made by legislatures to ascertain that they are able to adhere to or recommend measures to enhance business chances. They too are incisive about the kind of analysis and scheme they’d packaged depending on situational context from a rapid ly evolving market (Carter & Jones-Evans, 2006, pp. 152-175). They are expert on researching and studying economic forecasts as well. It’s this need to sustain the learning process that entrepreneurs often take metacognitive decision-making about his/her interrelationship with clients and customer while recognizing too the limiting factors by reflecting and understanding the varied controls in customer and client relations (Mitchell, Smith, Gustafsson, & Mitchell, 2006, pp. 5-12). Innovations set in. As observed globally, entrepreneurs increased their efficacy by adapting the use of technology as tool to hasten distinction in production and in marketing goods (Deakin & Freel, 2003, pp. 1-35). Unlike before when market is limited in established public facilities for vendors, entrepreneurs now reach out clients and customers in the households using internet or web-based connections. Modes of payments are also transacted via automated machines or electronic transfers (Deakin & Freel,

Friday, October 4, 2019

Bipolar disorder Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bipolar disorder - Term Paper Example Bipolar disorder falls among the oldest illnesses, which are known. The recognition of the disorder was during the second century and the discovery was in a Turkey’s city. The findings were not noticed and neither were they substantiated up to the year 1650, when Richard Burton, a scientist wrote his book called The Anatomy of Melancholia. The book majorly laid much emphasis on depression. The findings of the scientist are still used today even by fields related to mental health (Brent and Pan, 2008). In the year 1952, a journal article was written that critically analyzed the disorder’s heredity. The article showed that manic depression is capable of being passe own in families that already have patients with the disorder. In 1960’s, several people with bipolar disorder were placed at a given institution and provided with little financial help since the Congress refused to acknowledge that manic depression is a legitimate illness. However, during the 1970â€℠¢s, laws were enacted and besides, standards were put into place to aid the afflicted individuals. Similarly, in the year 1979, National Association of Mental Health was established (Reich, Clayton and Winokur, 1969). During the 1980’s, research was finally capable of distinguishing between childhood as well as adult bipolar disorder. Presently, a number of studies are still needed to unravel the possible causes as well as the probable means of treating the illness (Baloch & Soares, 2010). Generally, bipolar disorder develops when an individual is approaching his late teens although it also develops when individuals approaches their adulthood. However, there are a number of cases commences before the age of 25 (Kessler et al, 2005). In a number of individuals, first symptoms occur during their childhood, while in others, symptoms may develop very late in their lives. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder is done after individuals report their experiences; however, it may also be done after friends, family members and co-workers detect an abnormality. Secondary signs of the illness may be detected by clinical psychologist, social workers, psychiatrist, nurses, and also through clinical evaluation. However, the diagnosis of the condition is dependent on the presence as well as the duration of specific signs as well as symptoms (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). For an individual having bipolar disorder to be diagnosed correctly, it takes roughly 20 years. In approximately 37% of patients, bipolar disorder is usually diagnosed erroneously since it is always mistaken for unipolar depression. Surveys also prove that about 50% of individuals suffering from the disorder fail to take the medications that are prescribed (Brent & Pan, 2008). In general, the problem is not caused by the patient, though impaired judgment offer powerful incentives for skipping the medication. In order to control the disorder, drugs should be used. However, the drugs have side effects, which include g aining of weight as well as cognitive dulling (Young et al., 1978). In about 90% of marriages, that involves partners with bipolar disorder result into divorce due to the diseases adverse effects. Moreover, researchers have made estimation that about 40 percent of individuals having the disorder abuse drugs. Researchers also state that approximately 15 to 25% of individuals ha

A Little History Essay Example for Free

A Little History Essay In a government sponsored website one can find the following information regarding the ancestry of most Taiwanese: Archaeologists have found evidence of prehistoric human habitation in Taiwan that dates back 12,000 to 15,000 years, and suggests that the earliest ancestors of Taiwan’s present inhabitants came from at least two places: southern China and Austronesia. Early settlers from southern China settled in northern and central Taiwan†¦ (see Taiwan website). Aside from its proximity to China this historical trivia provides an explanation why Taiwan is very similar to China. This also explains the influence of Chinese culture that is so evident in the whole of Taiwan culture. Food is the closest thing to culture and since Taiwan is closely related to Mainland China in terms of culture, there is also a significant similarity in the way food is prepared. This is a factor to consider for any expatriate coming in to work. If the expatriate is used to eating Chinese food then there is no problem adjusting to the culinary preference of the Taiwanese people. The Economy In the CIA World Factbook a bright outlook is seen with regards to business opportunities, â€Å"Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by government authorities [†¦] Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world’s third largest [†¦] China has overtaken the US to become Taiwan’s largest export market† (see CIA). The last statement in the above-mentioned information, the one about China becoming the number export market for this nation speaks volumes about the economic potential of Taiwan. This also tells of its strategic position. Moreover, judging from this business relationship in spite of the shaky political relationship with the People’s Republic of China hints at Taiwan’s seriousness to overcome any obstacle to become a serious economic player in the region, in Asia and the world in general. Conclusion Looking at Taiwan and South Korea there is not much difference. This means that if I am forced to go to either one then I will be able to survive, thrive, and most probably succeed. Yet, since I have a choice in this matter, then I will choose Taiwan over South Korea. The following reasons supports my decision. Culture As mentioned earlier my family originally came from China. This means that I was raised in a family that practices or even cherishes values similar to those in China. Now, since Taiwan is considered part of China then it also implies that both countries share similar cultural traits. The same could not be said of South Korea whose culture is very different from the Chinese of mainland China. Having similar culture could also mean that it will take me a shorter amount of time to learn the dos and donts of the Taiwanese culture. This translates to efficiency and promotion up the corporate ladder. This also means less mistakes and an increase in customer satisfaction. It also enable me to contribute in terms of giving inputs on how to improve servcie since I fully understand what the Taiwanes customers are actually saying and not merely interpreting their words into English and assuming that translated words are the actual intent of their communication. Food The closest thing to culture is food. In this aspect Taiwanese cuisine is similar to those in the mainland. This means that less trouble for me nutrition wise. Many have said that the most difficult part in crossing over other culture is not the different clothes and not even the language barrier. What is most difficult according to many is learning to stomach the exotic foods available in a particular locale.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Packet Classification: Problem and Resolution

Packet Classification: Problem and Resolution INTRODUCTION This chapter covers the introduction to packet classification. Problems for packet classification, objectives to overcome the problem involved in packet classification, motivation to do the project on packet classification and also the organization of the project. The development of the internet grows for every year, because of the easy access of the internet. The gain of the internet can be obtained through the smartphones, netbooks, notebooks. For processing the packets, network processor is used, and it will carry out the tasks as to convert the packets into fragments, reassembling these fragments, forwarding, encryption and packet classification. Due to increased line rates, pressure is increased on line rates and it in turn pressure on network processor. The pressure can be relieved in two ways: By inserting more processing cores and it increases power consumption. Increasing the clock speed, but it creates difficulty due to the physical limitation in the silicon. So that it can be relieved in two different ways: Insert the clock gating, which reduces the power consumption. Insert the buffer, to form the pipelining and it also increases the speed. 1.1  PROBLEM DEFINITION Network processors are getting more strain, due to more use of internet and the strain needs to be reduce. To give the security for the network packets. To minimize the power required for packet classification. To achieve high speed and also high throughput for packet classification. 1.2  OBJECTIVES Understood the concept of hypercut algorithm for packet classification and also analyzed the flow chart for packet classification. Understood the verilog code and Xilinx tool. Wrote the verilog code for hypercut algorithm. The simulation results for hypercut algorithm is verified in Xilinx tool. Clock gating circuit is inserted in the architecture of the classifier, it reduces the power consumption. Pipelining concept is used in proposed architecture of the classifier and the simulation results are verified in Xilinx. 1.3  MOTIVATION The network traffic is doubling for each six to nine months. Also traditional algorithms are not supporting the increasing network traffic on core and edge devices. Large number of rulesets: Due to increased access of the network, the more services need to be implement in network device, so that more number of rules are needed. It creates the difficulty for classifying the packets. Flexibility: Traditional algorithms are particularly designed for IPV4, so that novel solutions are required to manage both IPV4 and IPV6 addresses. Scalability: As the network services are increasing, there is requirement to add or delete the rules. So that, good scalability is required for packet classification. 1.4  Organization of the thesis The thesis contains 6 chapters Chapter 1, it will covers the introduction of packet classification, problems involved in packet classification, objective to the packet classification and motivation for choosing the packet classification. Chapter 2, it will covers the basics of existing packet classification and also the basics of proposed packet classification. Chapter 3, it will covers the method used to do the packet classification, proposed architecture and also it tells how proposed architecture is better compared to previous algorithms. Chapter 4, it discusses the simulation the simulation results obtained for existing and proposed architecture of the classifier. Chapter 5, it covers the conclusion and future scope of the project. Chapter 6, It lists the reference papers used for literature review of the packet classification. Chapter 2 BASICS It covers the basics of packet classification. It also explains the structure of packet header, brief introduction to internet, the mode of information transmission through the internet, OSI layers, the type of matching, software and hardware implementation of packet classification , Clock gating and pipelining are also discussed. It also covers the review of different packet classification algorithms, by reading this the user can select the algorithm, which is best suit for his application. The internet is a global system. It is consists of inter connected computer networks, which uses the protocols(TCP/IP), to match several billion devices all over the world. It is also termed as networks of network. Access of internet is a process of connecting mobile devices, computers and computer terminals to the internet. Internet access will enables the users to access the internet services such as email and world wide web. Using various technologies, internet service providers will access the internet. A packet is a formatted unit of data, which is carried by the packet switched network. By formatting of the data, the bandwidth of communication medium can be increased. The structure of the packet contains the two varieties of data Control information User data 2.1  Control information This will provide the information, on where to send the data. Example, It provides the source and destination IP addresses, sequencing information and error codes. Fig 2.1 shows the structure of the packet Fig 2.1 structure of the packet 2.2  Payload The maximum size of the packet is 64 K bytes. The payload of the packet is variable. Example IPV4 typically adds the 20 bytes of payload to every packet. The packet is passed through the network using three devices such as hub, switch and router. 2.3  The modes of information transmission through the internet 2.3.1  Hub Hub is a central device, for which all other devices are connected. It is called the star system. It is very simple, when any device sends the data, it will send the data to all other devices and all other devices needs to decide whether the data is belonging to them, if it is not belonging to them, they will ignore it. It will present in physical layer. Fig 2.3.1 shows the structure of the hub. . Fig 2.3.1 shows the structure of the hub 2.3.2  Switch The switch is smarter compared to hub. First it creates the table, which records the IP/MAC addresses of the devices(PC’s) connected together. At the start, when any device sends the data, that time switch will not be knowing the destination IP addresses. So it will forwards the packets to all other devices, which are connected to it and it also records the IP address of the device. Next when packet belonging to those destination IP addresses comes, it will directly forward the packets to destination devices It is present in data link layer of OSI layer. Fig 2.3.2 shows the structure of the switch. 2.3.3  Router It is the smartest device compared to hub and switch. The router will record the address of all the devices which are connected to it. The router will read the information present in packet header and it will decide , where the packet needs to be sent and how to process the packet. It provides the security. While in hub, switch the destination IP address is known, hacker may hack the destination device, it will consider both destination and source IP address of the devices and it will decide whether the source device is hacker or not. If it is hacker, it will deny the packet. Fig 2.3.3 shows the structure of router. Fig 2.3.3 shows the structure of router. 2.4 OSI LAYERS It consist of seven layer Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer The Fig 2.4 for OSI model is shown below as Fig 2.4 OSI layers Application layer: This layer will provide the interface to application programmes. Presentation layer: In this layer , it converts the data from system specific format to the format which is suitable for application. It also provides encryption and compression. Session layer: Which facilitates the starting, managing and ending of connection between the two nodes. Ex: For a video session, it will synchronize the related stream of data such as audio and video. Transport layer: It will break the data into segments It will decide about how much information can be sent to email server and how much information can be received back. The responsibility of transport layer are: Reliability Flow control Fragmentation Network layer: Here the segments are broken into packets by adding the source and destination IP address to them. Next the packets are sent to data link layer. Here router is working in this layer. Data link layer: In this layer, the packets are broken into the frames, which are created for the specific network. The frames are assigned the address of two nodes, the data is moving in between. Physical layer: The frames given by the data link layer are converted into bits in physical medium. UDP: User datagram protocol It is light weight and connectionless. Advantages: The packet size is small. UDP header- 8 bytes TCP header- 20 bytes There is no requirement to create and maintain the connection. It has more control over the data Disadvantages: It does not provide error recovery. It does not compensate for lost data packets. Packets can arrive at out of order, so that data loses meaning. There is no control of congestion. Transmission control Protocol: It is reliable and connection based. Advantages: It delivers the acknowledgements. It provides retransmission. It provides in order delivery. It will delays the transmission when the network is busy. It provides error recovery. Disadvantages: It has bigger header. It doesn’t always get sent out quickly. It is the side effect of congestion. It has bigger overhead. UDP is message oriented It sends the data in distinct chunks. Ex: Email. For multimedia applications, UDP is used, because of these reasons as: It has less overhead. Data loss can be masked. UDP is used in small transmission. It is also used in bandwidth intensive applications, that tolerate packet loss. TCP is stream oriented It can be used in continuous flow of data. Ex: Phone conversation. For text communication, TCP is better. Ex: File transfers, Remote access. TCP is used when delivery acknowledgement are needed. In physical layer, information is transmitted in bit stream using hub. In data link layer information is transmitted in frames using switches. In network layer information is transmitted in packets using router. A router is a device that forwards the packet. A router is connected between two networks namely LAN’s or WAN’s. network processors are specialized CPU, which is optimized to support the implementation of network protocols at maximum speed. The function of network processor is to carry out the tasks such as packet separation, reassembly, encryption and classification. Packet classification is the process of categorizing the packets into flows in internet router. Packet will be classified in network layer. Packet has five fields as shown in fig Source IP address: It indicates the IP address of the sender . Destination IP address: It indicates the IP address of the destination. Source port: It indicates the port number of sender. Destination port: It indicates the port number of destination. Protocol: Which specifies the type of transport packet being carried. The incoming packet to router will matches the specific rule if the distinct field in the packet will match corresponding field in the rule. There are three matches Exact match: The values present in rule field header are same as the values present in packet header. Prefix match: The values of rule field header are prefix for header fields of the packet. Range match: The packet header field values must be lie in the range which is specified by the rule. 2.5  The types of packet classification algorithms Packet classification algorithm can be implemented in two major types Software based Hardware based 2.5.1  Software Implementation This can be used with general purpose processor and network processor. The software based algorithm can be divided into two types as Field dependent Algorithm Field independent Algorithm Field Independent Algorithm: For each field in the rule, these algorithms will build the index table separately. Ex: RFC Field dependent Algorithm: In these algorithm, the fields of the rule will be matched in dependent manner and there is no need to group the result in final stage. The memory requirement for these algorithms is less than field independent algorithms. Ex: Hypercut, Hicut 2.5.2  Hardware based implementation This is used with ASIC or with FPGA. This implementation is used with internet routers for the high speed that supports to handle the packet. The reasons to use software implementation Programmability: ASIC architectures has small Programming capacity, Because ASICs have special design. Special chips: To accelerate the packet processing speed, special chips called TCAMS are used. The proposed algorithm uses clock gating circuit to reduce power consumption and pipelining to increase the speed. 2.6  Clock gating Clock gating is a technique, which is used in synchronous circuits to minimize the power consumption. This technique is used to prune the clock, it disables the port of the circuitary, so that flip flops present in the circuitry will not switch the states. When switching is absent, the dynamic power consumption is reduced, but the leakage currents are present. Clock gating works by taking the enable signal of the circuitry, so that flip flops or devices present in latches will not switch the states, so that switching power reduces. So it is necessary to have enable conditions in order to get benefit from clock gating. The clock gating saves the power. Clock gating can be added in two ways: By writing the RTL code, the synthesis tool automatically translates the RTL code into clock gating logic. In order to gate the clock of specific modules or registers manually clock gating circuit can be inserted by instantiating library the specific ICG cells. Using automated the clock gating tools, clock gating is inserted in semi automatic fashion. These tools will insert ICG cells to RTL code or directly add the enable conditions to RTL code. 2.7  Pipelining It is group of data processing elements, which are connected in series, so that output of one element is the input to next element. We build a pipeline by dividing the complex operation into simple operation. Here instead of taking bulk thing and executing it, the bulk thing is break up into smaller pieces and process it one after another. For example Consider a calculation c= log(|a+b|), which consist of three operations, which are shown in fig 2.7. Fig 2.7 Pipelining example Add a and b to get a+b, it takes 40ns. Take the magnitude, we get as |a+b|, it takes 35 ns. Take the log we get as log(|a+b|), it takes 60ns. Consider a situation when we need to carry out for 100 such pairs. Without pipelining , it would take a total of 100*135= 13500ns. By realization, it is found that it is whole sequential process. Let the values evaluated to be a1 to a100 and we need to add values to be b1 to b100. In first evaluation, ( a1+b1)is calculated, In next evaluation, |a1+b1|,(a2+b2) is calculated, in third evaluation log|a1+b1|,|a2+b2|, ( a3+b3) is evaluated. After the first output data that is log|(a1+b1)|, the subsequent outputs are log|(a2+b2)|, log|(a3+ b3)| will now start arriving at a gap of 60ns . All the 100 inputs can be applied in 199*60=5940ns and the total time taken to evaluate 100 data will be 5940+180= 6120ns. This time is half compared without pipelining. This process of evaluation is called pipelinlng. 2.8 Literature review Algorithms are classified in 4 classes: Basic structures Geometry based Heuristics Hardware based 2.8.1  Basic structures a. Linear search: This algorithm[1], is very simple. It contains all the rules. Here each packet is matched opposite to all the rules until the corresponding fields of the packet should match to the rule. Although, it is simple, it is not widely used. Because, it takes the large time for matching with the rule. Consider N is the number of rules, â€Å"the worst case space and time complexity is O(N),where O is the order and N is the number of rules. Fig below shows the linear structure. Fig 2.8.1.a Linear search algorithm b. Hierarchial trie: It is an extension part of the binary trie. By using the individual bits of the search key, the branches of the trie can be traversed. In the d dimensional hierarchial trie[2], first bulid the one dimensional hierarchial trie which is called F1 trie. Foe each prefix P in the F1 trie, there is a recursively (d-1) dimensional hierarchial tries are present(Tp). For example, if the data structure is 2 dimensional the only one F1 trie is present. Hierarchial tries are also termed as multilevel tries or backtracking tries or tries of trie. Womens Roles in Anime: The Reflection of Japanese Society Womens Roles in Anime: The Reflection of Japanese Society What do the portrayals of women in Japanese animation reveal about the role of women in Japanese society today? The role of women in Japanese culture is an important topic amongst when discussing contemporary Japan. While it is important to consider traditional methods of analysis that come from statistics and surveys, you also need to look at how popular culture defines the modern Japanese woman. Japanese animation can provide a tool to analysis of the role of women in Japanese society. Through looking at women and they are portrayed in Japanese animation over the decade, we can begin to see the role of women in contemporary Japanese society. The purpose of this discussion is to determine a connection between Japanese animation (a form of popular culture) and the role of women (whether this role is shifting or remaining conservative) in contemporary Japanese society. In order to understand the link between Japanese animation and society, it is important to consider the meaning of these terms and how they relate to each other. Martinez defines popular culture as the culture of the masses; which does apply to the Japanese culture. Nevertheless, other opinions raise the point to how popular culture is a problematic term when translating it into the Japanese context. According to Hidetoshi Kato, a Japanese scholar, the term popular culture as taishu bunka; translates into mass culture. However, Martinezs definition is a middle of the road definition for the terms offered by Kato. In addition, Martinez defines the anthropology of popular culture as the study of the interaction between the apparently separate realms of the material and the symbolic. Other anthropologist such as Roger Buckley agrees with Martinez, stating that popular culture should tell us something about contemporary Japanese behavior. The images presented by Japanese animation including its related cousin, manga, or Japanese comics have helped shape the identity of modern Japanese women. Japanese animation, or anime, is useful when studying the role of women in society. Popular culture serves to reflect and instigate change in Japanese society, by observing the changes and themes in anime, these trends are identifiable. Popular culture also helps one to understand the dynamics of Japanese society and culture. While the behaviors identified are not Japanese, such as conformity, loyalty and deference8, there are certain subtle undertones that make themes and characters that make them Japanese. Lastly, Japanese animation industry caters for both sexes across a wide age group. This is important, because unlike the animation industry in the United States whereupon childrens programming is largely aimed at young boys. Japanese animation makes it possible to gain an insight into the role of women in society because both sexes views are represented. This provides a foundation for observing how the role of women in Japanese society can be studied through examining their role in Japanese animation. Japanese animation is interesting to study when observing the roles of gender because of the way it written for diverse tastes and it differs from Western animation. Anime has often been described as edgy, provocative, and documentary-like; these industry buzzwords describe anime as a different expression of animation, when it is not. In reality, the Japanese have embraced animation as an expression that goes beyond the standard set by Disney. Anime includes animation catered for all age groups. Anime content ranges from superb works to trashy soap operas or pornography; however, they play an important role in Japans popular culture by providing a legacy of past ideals. Respected writer Frederik Schodt has split the anime available into two distinct halves as defined by the gender, Boys comic [shonen] anime carefully balance suspense with humor, dramatic stories of sports, adventure, ghosts, science fiction, and school life. Girls comic anime [shojo] also strive for balance but are distinguished by their tales of idealized love. Given the range to choose from, it is important to analyze a number of sources to see how anime reflects the position of women in Japanese society, but to examine them with an open mind. Reaction to anime has been filled with distaste. Film critics have both embraced and criticized Japanese animation. Mamorum Oshiis theatrical adaption of Shirow Masamunes Ghost in the Shell, regarded as a movie that questions what it is that makes us human by many, has been lauded as a spectacular-looking Japanese animated film, but like so many of its kind, involves a confusing narrative and peculiar metaphysics that reduce interest16. To avoid generalizations it is important to look at works from a several genres to how anime portrays Japanese women in society. To observe the role of women as portrayed in anime with a female-specific target audience, Komodo no Omocha (1996) will be used to analyzed. To see how women are being represented in anime that is targeted at a male demographic, Dragon Ball Z (199?) will form the basis of analysis. Finally, a recent work from Japans most respected and successful animation studio today, Studio Ghibli, will be analyzed Mononoke Hime (1997). The importance of studying Studio Ghiblis work is to see how women are portrayed by an animation studio whose works reach a very wide audience, that typically cross the gender and age boundaries. While this analysis will not prove to be the final answer, it will prove an interesting investigation when considering what images of femininity have been projected onto Japanese society over the past decade. Kodomo no Omocha was a popular series that aired on Japanese television in the mid 1990 is, compared to many shojo anime, Kodomo no Omocha is radical, though it is by far not the only one. The story is a comedy fused with typical shojo elements love interests, and pretty artwork. The female lead is a young girl named Sana, who lives with her eccentric, but loving, mother and Rei, her personal manager. Unlike other female characters that will be analyzed, Sana is loud, outspoken and is not intimidated by anyone. She is works hard to do her best at her job (she is a famous star of a childrens TV program), friends and family. While she exhibits traditionally female qualities, she is not the stereotypical wholly subservient female character. Even though she is only a child, she stresses the importance of her job. Her mother is another strong female role within the anime. She is intelligent, in control and the men are more likely to be subservient to her than anything else is. Other fema les in the show lean towards conservative Japan, such as when Sanas female teacher cries and runs to another male teacher for assistance whenever the class acts up. The male characters are traditionally empowered, though like many a shojo anime, have soft sides to their personalities. The depiction of the two main female characters, Sana and her mother, offer an insight into the modern Japanese woman as having the capacity to be strong, yet gentle and compassionate. Dragon Ball Z offers an interesting insight into the portrayal of women in anime aimed at a male demographic. The reason this is an interesting series to look at is its popularity and the way it portrays gender roles. Women are portrayed in few roles in this anime. The female roles are dismally backwards. Dragon Ball Z has portrayed the role of women as subservient/secondary at their core. It has pointed out that fundamental beliefs about gender roles are difficult to change in any society, including Japans, The show is very male-centric, emphasizing strength, discipline and hard work as the key to being successful in the world. On the other hand, this is a martial arts anime, so this should not be a surprising aspect. One of the women who appear regularly is the protagonists female friend Bulma, an intelligent scientist. Bulma is a gifted inventor and often creates something that will aid her group of friends in whatever plight they are in. Bulma is portrayed as a confident, intelli gent woman who, while not of equal status, remains an important part of the team. However, when she is put in a position of danger, she falls into the damsel in distress stereotype all too common in male-orientated anime. She is rescued one way or another, but is often the least of the groups priorities she is often rescued as an after-thought, as opposed to being a genuine critical concern. This is a good example of what Eri Izawa determines as the Unequal Relationship genre, where women are second to men in a world dominated by patriarchy. Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata founded studio Ghibli in 1985. The importance with studying work by Studio Ghibli is because their productions (which are theatrical) have such widespread appeal in Japanese society. A large number of Japans populace sees the stories that are created here. The films cross the divides of age and gender. The movie that is I am looking at is Mononoke Hime. It grossed approximately US$150 million at the box office, beaten only by Titanic. In Mononoke Hime, the story centers on three principle characters San, the Wolf Princess, Lady Eboshi and prince Ashitaka, the pillar between which these two women are placed. One of interesting strengths of this film is the way in which the opposing characters, San and Lady Eboshi, are portrayed. Both are strong, powerful women, sure of themselves and their world. Lady Eboshi is a superlative example of the new woman of Japan. She is in charge of a profitable ironworks that employs people regarded as beneath society (prostitutes and lepers), leading by compassion, returning dignity and purpose to their lives. San is the other extreme; she lives in the forest of the Deer God, raised by the great wolf gods who dwell there. San is a strong female character who follows a more natural way of life; as opposed to the entrepreneurial mindset of Lady Eboshi, San is dedicated to preserving the forest and the creatures that dwell within. Miyazaki is portraying the capacity of women to be strong, competent and successful. San represents the capacity of women to be strong in the dwelling of the traditional while Lady Eboshi is an example of how women can be successful and entrepreneurial in the face of modernization. From three examples, it is easy to see these reflections on the role of women are present in contemporary Japanese society. Martinez admits that it is difficult to discover what the true role of Japanese women in Japanese society are in a perceived country where men are still dominant [and] Japanese women are held to be gentle, submissive and beautiful. Historically, Japanese womens suffrage was achieved in 1945 and it is noted that while Japanese women may be able to find jobs, it is far more difficult to find careers, even today. However, public opinion is changing. There is clear that the role of women in Japan is no longer the traditional housewife/mother. Surveys by the Prime Ministers Office in 1987 and 1995 show a shift in public opinion of women, while in 1987 over 50% of the men surveyed agreed with the traditional role of women in Japan, by 1995 the percentage had dropped to 33%. The state of Japanese animation over the past decade reveals a relative parallel between the co ntent of Japanese animation and these results. The role of women in anime such as Kodomo no Omocha gives girls a role model unlike the traditionally submissive, quiet woman in the face of Sanas eccentric, enthusiastic nature that is rewarded by success. Studio Ghiblis films have portrayed women as equal, confident and able to take charge in their lives. Anime aimed at boys retain the portrayal of women as bystanders, whether it be the token damsel in distress or cheerleader. However, that is changing; Japanese animation aimed at the boys has begun to portray women beyond this traditional stereotype. Several productions such as Ranma 1/2 and Love Hina offered a cast of characters that serve to put women on equal ground as men in some cases, though there is still the re-enforcement of traditional gender roles. Japanese animation is an established form of pop culture. It is consumed by both sexes and across all age groups, and offers a series of representations of women. While it has become apparent through observing trends in Japanese animation and contemporary Japanese society is an apparent shift, however, it is important to identify that the traditional role of women will probably always manifest itself in pop culture. This is because the traditional role of women is an option, just as choosing a career or being entrepreneurial are choices. What is encouraging to see is that those choices are being represented, either directly or indirectly, in anime. It speaks well for the future of Japanese society as alternative roles of women are being portrayed for both sexes in the culture of the masses. Reference: Martinez, D.P. (1998). The Worlds of Japanese popular culture: gender, shifting boundaries [UK, Cambridge UP, p. 3]. Hidetoshi, K. (1989). Some Thoughts on Japanese popular culture. Richard Gid Powers Hidetoshi, K. (1989). Handbook of Japanese popular culture. Greenwood Press. Buckley, R. (1990). Japan today. Cambridge: UP. Schodt, F.L. (1983). Manga! manga! the world of japanese comics. USA: Kodansha. Izawa, E. (2001). Japanese manga and animation: gender relations in manga and anime. Retrieved from (abridged) Robertson, J. (1998). Takarazuka: sexual politics and popular culture in modern japan. University of California. Dimensions of Japanese society: gender, margins and mainstream. Great Britain: Macmillan Press Ltd.